|Free Radicals - where and how formed
|Free Radicals cause aging
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Aldehydes - a measure of total free radical activity
The Free Radical Test kit follows the principle of Schiff's reaction and measures all or total aldehydes. Aldehydes are produced from lipid peroxidation,
smoking, including inhalation of second hand smoke, alcohol (metabolism of alcohol), consumption of too much fried foods, exercises, etc. It is better
to measure total aldehydes than just MDA (Malondialdehyde).
Aldehyde is an organic compound containing the group "-CHO" formed by the oxidation of alcohols. Typical aldehydes include methanal (formaldehyde) and
ethanal (acetaldehyde) (fig. 1).
The group "- without R -" is the aldehyde group also known as formyl group. Aldehydes are common in organic chemistry and, many fragrances are aldehydes.
An example is Formaldehyde (fig. 2). Another aldehyde is (MDA), a highly reactive three carbon dialdehyde produced as a byproduct of
polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation and arachidonic acid metabolism. MDA readily combines with several functional groups on molecules
including proteins, lipoproteins, and DNA. MDA-modified proteins may show altered physico-chemical behavior and antigenicity. Antibodies to MDA will help
to visualize the MDA-adducts.
Aldehydes have properties that are diverse depending on the remainder of the molecule. Smaller adldehydes are more soluble in water - formaldehyde and
acetaldehyde completely so. The volatile aldehydes have pungent odors and aldehydes degrade in air due to autoxidation.
The two aldehydes of greatest importance in industry are formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. They have complicated behaviour because of their tendency to
oligomerize or polymerize. They also tend to hydrate forming the geminal diol. The oligomers/polymers and the hydrates exist in equilibrium with the
Peroxidation of Unsaturated Lipids
The variety of lipids and the random nature of free radical reactions lead to many products. These include 4-hydroxyalkenals (4-HDA) and, when there are 3
or more unsaturated bonds become MDA . These can serve as targets for measurement of fatty acid peroxidation. The initiating reaction can be with another
radical, "UV" light or radiation. Since another radical is produced in the process, it causes a chain reaction. Accordingly the more aldehydes that are
present in the urine specimen measured the higher the free radical activity in the bdoy giving rise to a stronger colour result.
Lipid peroxidation is a well-established mechanism of cellular injury in both plants
and animals, and is used as an indicator of oxidative stress in cells and
tissues. Lipid peroxides, derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids, are unstable and decompose
to form a complex series of compounds. These include reactive carbonyl compounds,
which is the most abundant malondialdehyde (MDA). Therefore,
measurement of malondialdehyde is widely used as an indicator of lipid peroxidation.
Increased levels of lipid peroxidation products have been associated
with a variety of chronic diseases in both humans and model systems. MDA reacts readily with amino groups
on proteins and other biomolecules to form a variety of adducts, including cross-linked products. MDA
also forms adducts with DNA bases that are mutagenic and possibly carcinogenic. DNA-protein cross-links are
another result of the reaction between DNA and MDA.
An effective antioxidant is Glutathione. It is the most significant non-enzymatic oxidant defense mechanism. It exists
in relatvively large amounts (M levels) and serves to detoxify peroxides and regenerate a number of important antioxidants such as -tociogerik abd '
ascorbic acid. The best way to obtain Glutathione is through L-Cysteine because the body do not absorb glutathione consumed orally. Cysteine is more
bioavailable to the body which converts it to glutathione easily. Check out Osumex's
Osumex's Flax Hulls is also an effective antioxidant to
use. It is also a most nutritious fibre!
Osumex New Free Radical Test kit - see sample kit below
It is recommended that you test at least once a week, if excessive free radical activity is found, until it is brought under control, or
once a month or at least once every few months to make sure free radicals in the body are not running rampant!
The above information is provided for general
educational purposes only. It is not intended to replace competent
health care advice received from a knowledgeable healthcare professional.
You are urged to seek healthcare advice for the treatment of any
illness or disease.
The Food Standard Agency UK has not evaluated these
statements. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent